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Table 5 Cox regression analysis

From: Predictor factors for non-invasive mechanical ventilation failure in severe COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit: a single-center retrospective study

Variable Univariate Cox regression Multivariate Cox regression (adjusted for the Charlson Comorbidity Index)
HR (CI95%) p-value HRAdj (CI95%) p-value
Gender, male 0.82 (0.42–1.59) 0.5533 0.84 (0.43–1.65) 0.6143
Age 1.04 (1.00–1.07) 0.0372 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.9315
BMI 0.99 (0.92–1.05) 0.6700 1.00 (0.94–1.07) 0.9212
Ward LOS 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.9638 0.99 (0.96–1.03) 0.7481
Charlson Comorbidity Index 1.32 (1.10–1.57) 0.0024
Hypertension 1.11 (0.58–2.12) 0.7499 0.81 (0.41–1.59) 0.5380
Obesity 1.34 (0.65–2.78) 0.4287 1.76 (0.83–3.74) 0.1381
Diabets 1.70 (0.89–3.26) 0.1065 0.98 (0.45–2.13) 0.9592
COPD 2.33 (1.13–4.79) 0.0212 1.51 (0.69–3.30) 0.2993
CAD 2.56 (1.16–5.64) 0.0199 1.81 (0.80–4.11) 0.1535
pH 0.15 (0.00–33.93) 0.4953 17.11 (0.06–4463.02) 0.3170
PaO2 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.7803 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.0843
PaCO2 0.98 (0.94–1.03) 0.4053 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 0.9155
Lactate 1.36 (0.83–2.24) 0.2244 0.88 (0.50–1.57) 0.6719
PaO2/FiO2 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.3118 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.0181
FiO2 4.22 (0.58–30.40) 0.1531 5.52 (0.66–46.00) 0.1146
Ventilation mode, PSV 2.43 (0.74–7.92) 0.1410 2.07 (0.63–6.84) 0.2332
PEEP 1.10 (0.86–1.40) 0.4339 1.11 (0.85–1.46) 0.4305
Pressure support 0.89 (0.77–1.02) 0.0852 0.91 (0.79–1.04) 0.1846
Glicemia 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.0714 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.8372
Azotemia 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.7315 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.3478
Creatinine 1.09 (0.63–1.88) 07611 0.69 (0.39–1.23) 0.2094
eGFR 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.4092 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.3930
Total protein 1.28 (0.52–3.16) 0.5907 1.13 (0.47–2.71) 0.7744
Albumin 0.49 (0.21–1.17) 0.1079 0.52 (0.20–1.32) 0.1673
Bilirubin 1.08 (0.80–1.45) 0.6109 0.99 (0.74–1.32) 0.9494
Ammonium 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.9765 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.6060
Sodium 1.00 (0.96–1.05) 0.8205 1.00 (0.95–1.04) 0.9191
Potassium 0.60 (0.33–1.08) 0.0883 0.75 (0.41–1.37) 0.3536
Clorum 1.00 (0.93–1.06) 0.9048 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 0.6350
Calcium 0.51 (0.28–0.93) 0.0288 0.55 (0.29–1.03) 0.0626
Magnesium 0.68 (0.27–1.71) 0.4110 0.92 (0.36–2.34) 0.8621
AST 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.4030 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.2631
ALT 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.0599 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.1900
LDH 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.3968 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.4288
CPK 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.0491 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.0064
Troponin 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.0323 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.0823
Mioglobin 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.4230 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.9568
CK-MB 1.08 (1.01–1.16) 0.0269 1.06 (0.98–1.15) 0.1271
BNP 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.1776 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.7786
Hb 0.86 (0.69–1.07) 0.1800 0.95 (0.75–1.20) 0.6466
WBC 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.7677 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.6782
Neutrophil 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.7523 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.7071
Limphocyte 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.3318 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.2168
Eosinophil 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.4216 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.7185
Monocyte 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.7885 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.7783
Basophil 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.2188 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.4400
Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio 1.02 (0.99–1.06) 0.1794 1.02 (0.99–1.06) 0.2176
Platelet 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.2903 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.8352
aPTT 1.03 (0.99–1.06) 0.1466 1.03 (0.99–1.08) 0.1072
INR 2.60 (1.27–5.34) 0.0090 2.32 (1.10–4.85) 0.0262
Firbinogen 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.3873 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.8126
D-dimer 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.1273 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.5689
AT III 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.0015 0.98 (0.96–0.99) 0.0249
CRP 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.8349 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.9794
PCT 1.05 (0.99–1.11) 0.0758 1.06 (0.99–1.12) 0.0738
SOFA 1.21 (0.91–1.61) 0.1807 1.08 (0.83–1.40) 0.5789
Tocilizumab 0.57 (0.24–1.36) 0.2053 0.72 (0.30–1.76) 0.4737
Remdesivir 0.73 (0.18–3.05) 0.6699 0.96 (0.23–4.08) 0.9607
  1. The table reports the results of univariate and multivariate (considering the Charlson Comorbidity Index) Cox regression analysis for single variables. Hazard ratio (HR), adjusted HR (HRAdj) with CI95% were computed. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant