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Table 2 NIV-failed vs NIV-successful groups: demographic, comorbidities, blood gas analysis, and ventilation setting parameter statistical analysis

From: Predictor factors for non-invasive mechanical ventilation failure in severe COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit: a single-center retrospective study

Variable NIV-failed (n = 44) NIV-successful (n = 38) p-value
Demographic data
Male gender (%) 28 (63.6%) 34 (89.5%) 0.0069
Age (years) 69.4 ± 7.8 59.0 ± 12.4 < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 [25.1–31.0] 28.7 [25.2–38.0] 0.1215
NIV day (days) 5.0 [3.0–9.0] 4.5 [3.0–8.0] 0.7931
Ward LOS (days) 4.0 [0.0–7.0] 3.0 [0.0–7.0] 0.8540
ICU LOS (day) 10.0 [7.0–13.0] 5.0 [4.0–8.0] < 0.0001
Survived (%) 1 (2.3%) 36 (94.7%) < 0.0001
Comorbidities
Charlson Comorbidity Index 4 [3–4] 2 [1–3] <0.0001
Hypertension (%) 28 (63.6%) 17 (44.7%) 0.0863
Obesity (%) 12 (27.3%) 15 (39.5%) 0.2411
Diabets (%) 15 (34.1%) 7 (18.4%) 0.1103
COPD (%) 12 (27.3%) 3 (7.9%) 0.0236
CAD (%) 8 (18.2%) 2 (5.3%) 0.0764
CKD (%) 3 (6.8%) 1 (2.6%) 0.3801
Endocrinological disease (%) 4 (9.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.0567
Atrial fibrillation (%) 3 (6.8%) 1 (2.6%) 0.3801
DVT (%) 2 (4.5%) 1 (2.6%) 0.6453
CVD (%) 3 (6.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0.1010
Asthma (%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (7.9%) 0.0579
Autoimmune disease (%) 3 (6.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0.1010
Hematological disease (%) 1 (2.3%) 1 (2.6%) 0.9163
OSAS (%) 1 (2.3%) 1 (2.6%) 0.9163
Neurological disorder (%) 2 (4.5%) 0 (0.0%) 0.1833
Liver disease (%) 1 (2.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0.3498
Arterial blood gas analysis and ventilation parameters
pH 7.45 [7.44–7.49] 7.46 [7.43–7.48] 0.8280
PaO2(mmHg) 81.0 [74.0–106.7] 91.0 [77.2–104.4] 0.7977
PaCO2(mmHg) 36.0 [30.2–42.0] 39.0 [34.5–42.2] 0.2650
Lactate (mmol/L) 1.5 [1.3–1.9] 1.2 [1.0–1.6] 0.0070
PaO2/FiO2 111.0 [93.0–182.7] 127.0 [116.2–173.2] 0.2379
CPAP (%) 3 (6.8%) 10 (26.3%) 0.0166
PEEP (cmH2O) 10.0 [10.0–10.0] 10.0 [10.0–11.0] 0.4785
Pressure support (cmH2O) 6.0 [5.0–10.0] 9.0 [7.0–10.0] 0.0393
  1. The table reports the statistical comparison of demographic, comorbidities, blood gas analysis, and ventilation setting parameters between the groups. Frequencies are expressed as numbers and percentages (%). Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median, first and third quartile [q1q3]. In case of missing data, statistics were performed on available data. Differences in frequencies were tested with the chi-square test. Differences in continuous variables were tested with two-tailed Student’s t-test (equal variance) or Welch’s test (unequal variance) or, for not normally distributed continuous variables, the Mann-Whitney test. All tests were performed with an α = 0.05, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant