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Table 2 Multivariable ordered logit models

From: Emotional status and fear in patients scheduled for elective surgery during COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide cross-sectional survey (COVID-SURGERY)

  Odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Model 1—Dependent variable “Emotional status towards the surgical procedure worsened due to COVID-19 pandemic”
(N = 2361; Wald test of parallel lines assumption, p-value = 8454)
Spouse/partner (ref. no) 1.279 (1.041–1.572) 0.0191
Use of sleep-inducing drugs (ref. no.) 2.070 (1.657–2.587) < .0001
Recurrent use of alcoholic beverages (6 months) (ref. no.) 0.636 (0.446–0.905) 0.0120
Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (ref. no.) 0.607 (0.414–0.891) 0.0108
Isolation due to contact with COVID-19 patient (ref. no.) 1.577 (1.179–2.111) 0.0022
Fear of anaesthesia (ref. no)   
 Slightly 1.447 (1.173–1.785) 0.0006
 Moderately 2.070 (1.606–2.668) < .0001
 Extremely 2.363 (1.608–3.471) < .0001
Fear of surgery (ref. no.)   
 Slightly 1.655 (1.315–2.083) < .0001
 Moderately 3.065 (2.394–3.925) < .0001
 Extremely 3.151 (2.205–4.503) < .0001
Previous surgery affects the current emotional status (ref. no. previous surgery)   
 No 0.655 (0.526–0.815) 0.0002
 Slightly 1.555 (1.222–1.979) 0.0003
 Moderately 2.407 (1.825–3.177) < .0001
 Extremely 5.334 (3.189–8.922) < .0001
Italian geographic area (ref. North)   
 Centre 0.876 (0.680–1.128) 0.3042
 South 1.525 (1.230–1.890) 0.0001
Hospital characteristics—performing multidisciplinary surgery (ref. no.) 1.843 (1.183–2.871) 0.0069
Volume of surgeries per month (ref. “< 100”)   
 101–200 0.388 (0.276–0.546) < .0001
 > 200 0.350 (0.250–0.491) < .0001
Hospital characteristics—presence of COVID-19 ward (ref. no.) 1.262 (1.028–1.551) 0.0265
Model 2—Dependent variable “Fear of going to hospital for routine check-ups”
(N = 2360; Wald test of parallel lines assumption, p value = 0.4373)
Male sex (ref. female) 0.691 (0.578–0.826) 0.0001
Spouse/partner (ref. no.) 1.271 (1.025–1.576) 0.0288
Use of sleep-inducing drugs (ref. no.) 1.828 (1.453–2.301) < .0001
Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (ref. no.) 0.498 (0.338–0.735) 0.0004
Family member with SARS-CoV-2 infection (ref. no.) 1.408 (1.107–1.790) 0.0053
Presence of chronic disease (ref. no.) 1.286 (1.071–1.543) 0.0069
Presence of immunological disease (ref. no.) 1.548 (1.055–2.271) 0.0254
Cohabiting with chronic disease patient (ref. no.) 1.326 (1.051–1.672) 0.0171
Type of patient (ref. outpatient) 1.210 (1.004–1.458) 0.0454
Previous surgery affects the current emotional status (ref. no. previous surgery)   
 No 0.763 (0.608–0.957) 0.0194
 Slightly 1.101 (0.856–1.416) 0.4547
 Moderately 1.651 (1.246–2.188) 0.0005
 Extremely 2.350 (1.402–3.939) 0.0012
Type of anaesthesia (ref. general)   
 Locoregional 1.538 (1.260–1.876) < .0001
 Sedation 1.736 (1.313–2.294) 0.0001
Fear of anaesthesia (ref. no.)   
 Slightly 1.356 (1.092–1.683) 0.0059
 Moderately 2.181 (1.683–2.828) < .0001
 Extremely 2.793 (1.884–4.140) < .0001
Fear of surgery (ref. no.)   
 Slightly 1.835 (1.448–2.327) < .0001
 Moderately 2.790 (2.164–3.596) <.0001
 Extremely 2.052 (1.421–2.963) 0.0001
Italian geographic area (ref. north)   
 Centre 0.863 (0.665–1.119) 0.2657
 South 1.552 (1.226–1.964) 0.0003
Volume of surgeries per month (ref. “< 100”)   
 101–200 0.332 (0.233–0.475) < .0001
 > 200 0.336 (0.239–0.474) < .0001
Hospital characteristics—presence of COVID-19 ward (ref. no.) 1.315 (1.072–1.613) 0.0085
Model 3—Dependent variable “Fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization”
(N = 2362; Wald test of parallel lines assumption, p value = 0.4820)
Spouse/partner (ref. no.)   
Use of sleep-inducing drugs (ref. no.) 1.585 (1.271–1.976) < .0001
Recurrent use of drugs (6 months) (ref. no.) 0.326 (0.137–0.774) 0.0111
Isolation due to contact with COVID-19 patient (ref. no.) 1.519 (1.140–2.023) 0.0043
Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (ref. no.) 0.348 (0.236–0.513) < .0001
Presence of pulmonary disease (ref. no.) 1.328 (1.017–1.735) 0.0373
Presence of oncological disease (ref. no.) 1.433 (1.093–1.879) 0.0093
Previous surgery affects the current emotional status (ref. no. previous surgery)   
 No 0.948 (0.766–1.173) 0.6248
 Slightly 1.371 (1.078–1.744) 0.0100
 Moderately 1.922 (1.459–2.531) < .0001
 Extremely 3.304 (1.999–5.461) < .0001
Type of anaesthesia (ref. general)   
 Locoregional 1.229 (1.016–1.486) 0.0334
 Sedation 1.777 (1.362–2.320) < .0001
Fear of anaesthesia (ref. no.)   
 Slightly 1.587 (1.297–1.943) < .0001
 Moderately 2.187 (1.707–2.801) < .0001
 Extremely 3.375 (2.303–4.947) < .0001
Fear of surgery (ref. no.)   
 Slightly 1.819 (1.459–2.269) < .0001
 Moderately 3.437 (2.707–4.364) < .0001
 Extremely 2.668 (1.879–3.789) < .0001
Italian geographic area (ref. north)   
 Centre 0.825 (0.648–1.049) 0.1156
 South 1.487 (1.205–1.835) 0.0002
Volume of surgeries per month (ref. “< 100”)   
 101–200 0.411 (0.292–0.580) < .0001
 > 200 0.472 (0.338–0.659) < .0001
Hospital characteristics - presence of COVID-19 ward (ref. No) 1.328 (1.096–1.610) 0.0039
Model 4—Dependent variable “Fear of hospitalization without seeing family members”
(N = 2364; Wald test of parallel lines assumption, p value = 0.2282)
Sex (ref. female) 0.656 (0.557–0.773) < .0001
Spouse/partner (ref. no) 1.487 (1.222–1.811) 0.0001
Use of sleep-inducing drugs (ref. no.) 1.586 (1.276–1.972) < .0001
Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (ref. no.) 0.615 (0.431–0.877) 0.0072
Family member with SARS-CoV-2 infection (ref. no.) 1.326 (1.054–1.668) 0.0158
Presence of oncological disease (ref. no.) 1.526 (1.168–1.995) 0.0020
Previous surgery affects the current emotional status (ref. no. previous surgery)   
 No 0.820 (0.666–1.008) 0.0600
 Slightly 1.308 (1.035–1.655) 0.0248
 Moderately 1.713 (1.302–2.255) 0.0001
 Extremely 2.206 (1.334–3.647) 0.0021
Fear of anaesthesia (ref. no.)   
 Slightly 1.147 (0.941–1.399) 0.1748
 Moderately 1.513 (1.183–1.935) 0.0010
 Extremely 2.364 (1.627–3.434) < .0001
Fear of surgery (ref. no.)   
 Slightly 2.093 (1.695–2.586) < .0001
 Moderately 4.315 (3.406–5.467) < .0001
 Extremely 6.061 (4.237–8.669) < .0001
Italian geographic area (ref. north)   
 Centre 1.230 (0.974–1.553) 0.0824
 South 1.432 (1.171–1.752) 0.0005
Hospital characteristics—performing multidisciplinary surgery (ref. no.) 1.677 (1.125–2.498) 0.0111
Volume of surgeries per month (ref. “< 100”)   
 101–200 0.355 (0.252–0.501) 0.0000
 > 200 0.380 (0.271–0.533) < .0001