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Table 3 NIV-failed vs NIV-successful groups: laboratory findings and therapies statistical analysis

From: Predictor factors for non-invasive mechanical ventilation failure in severe COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit: a single-center retrospective study

Variable Overall (n = 82) NIV-failed (n = 44) NIV-successful (n = 38) p-value
Laboratory results
Glicemia (mg/dL) 139.0 [117.0–177.0] 160.5 [129.5–202.5] 123.5 [112.0–154.0] 0.0039
Azotemia (mg/dL) 60.5 [46.2–71.0] 63.5 [49.5–96.0] 60.0 [45.0–69.0] 0.2284
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.74 [0.61–0.96] 0.73 [0.56–1.09] 0.74 [0.66–0.91] 0.7802
eGFR (mL/min) 95.5 [73.3–106.7] 91.5 [66.7–99.3] 100.8 [88.8–113.3] 0.0104
Total protein (g/dL) 6.0 ± 0.6 6.1 ± 0.6 6.1 ± 0.6 0.7854
Albumin (g/dL) 0.7 [0.6–0.9] 2.9 ± 0.3 3.1 ± 0.4 0.0051
Bilirubin (mg/dL) 3.0 ± 0.4 0.8 [0.6–0.9] 0.7 [0.5–0.9] 0.4540
Ammonium (μg/dL) 84.0 [65.0–113.0] 84.0 [63.0–110.7] 85.5 [67.5–115.5] 0.9250
Sodium (mEq/L) 138.0 [136.0–140.0] 138.0 [136.0–143.0] 138.0 [136.0–140.0] 0.3287
Potassium (mEq/L) 4.4 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.5 0.0013
Clorum (mEq/L) 102.0 [99.5–104.0] 103.0 [100.2–105.7] 102.0 [99.0–103.0] 0.1595
Calcium (mg/dL) 8.5 [8.1–8.8] 8.4 [8.1–8.6] 8.6 [8.3–8.9] 0.0443
Magnesium (mg/dL) 2.2 ± 0.3 2.3 [2.0–2.5] 2.2 [2.0–2.4] 0.8127
AST (U/L) 31.5 [25.0–48.2] 29.0 [23.0–45.5] 34.0 [27.0–50.0] 0.3218
ALT (U/L) 37.0 [26.0–56.0] 30.0 [20.0–42.5] 49.5 [28.0–79.0] 0.0016
LDH (U/L) 413.0 [319.5–598.0] 456.5 [348.0–614.5] 387.5 [299.0–550.0] 0.1344
CPK (U/L) 69.5 [40.5–141.5] 61.5 [45.0–132.0] 82.0 [34.0–156.0] 0.7168
Troponin (ng/L) 11.3 [5.0–21.3] 13.5 [8.4–38.6] 6.0 [3.7–13.9] 0.0008
Mioglobin (ng/mL) 62.3 [37.8–110.9] 75.5 [39.2–169.5] 49.9 [32.5–91.5] 0.0894
CK-MB (ng/mL) 1.7 [1.1–2.8] 2.1 [1.3–3.9] 1.3 [0.9–1.9] 0.0038
BNP (pg/mL) 53.0 [33.0–123.2] 86.0 [46.5–196.2] 34.0 [21.0–58.0] 0.0001
Hb (g/dL) 13.7 [12.2–14.6] 13.1 [12.1–13.9] 14.3 [12.4–14.9] 0.0327
WBC (× 103) 11.0 [8.1–13.3] 11.8 [9.1–13.3] 10.1 [7.6–13.3] 0.1017
Neutrophil (× 103) 9.6 [7.0–11.7] 10.3 [8.0–12.0] 8.4 [6.9–10.9] 0.0542
Lymphocytes 727 [536–999] 758 ± 330 850 ± 348 0.2255
Eosinophil 85 [48–154] 96 [53–156] 78 [39–149] 0.2906
Monocyte 437 [318–627] 433 [317–580] 476 [322–700] 0.5121
Basophil 13 [8–24] 13 [10–24] 12 [5–21] 0.2182
Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio 12.1 [8.8–18.0] 15.1 [10.4–19.7] 10.3 [7.4–14.4] 0.0080
Platelet (× 103) 266.6 ± 103.9 247.4 ± 104.6 288.8 ± 99.9 0.0714
aPTT (sec) 29.9 [26.8–32.8] 31.2 [29.3–34.0] 27.9 [25.9–30.6] 0.0041
INR 1.13 [1.04–1.23] 1.19 [1.04–1.31] 1.12 [1.04–1.18] 0.0921
Firbinogen (mg/dL) 538.5 [471.0–670.0] 505.5 [424.5–588.0] 596.0 [512.0–699.0] 0.0166
D-dimer (ng/mL) 1060.0 [680.7–2495.0] 1460.0 [860.0–3825.0] 820.0 [530.0–1260.0] 0.0037
AT III (%) 86.3 ± 15.9 82.4 ± 16.2 90.8 ± 14.4 0.0161
CRP (mg/dL) 7.3 [3.6–12.7] 8.9 [5.1–14.2] 6.1 [3.6–9.4] 0.0762
PCT (ng/mL) 0.10 [0.06–0.23] 0.13 [0.09–0.35] 0.08 [0.05–0.14] 0.0141
SOFA score 3 [3–4] 4 [3–5] 3 [3–4] 0.0808
Therapies
Tocilizumab (%) 16 (19.5%) 6 (13.6%) 10 (26.3%) 0.1490
Eculizumab (%) 2 (2.4%) 1 (2.3%) 1 (2.6%) 0.9163
Remdesivir (%) 6 (7.3%) 2 (4.5%) 4 (10.5%) 0.2997
  1. The table reports the statistical comparison of laboratory findings and therapies between the groups. Frequencies are expressed as numbers and percentages (%). Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median, first and third quartile [q1q3]. In case of missing data, statistics were performed on available data. Differences in frequencies were tested with the chi-square test. Differences in continuous variables were tested with two-tailed Student’s t-test (equal variance) or Welch’s test (unequal variance) or, for not normally distributed continuous variables, the Mann-Whitney test. All tests were performed with an α = 0.05, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant