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Table 2 Evidence classification

From: The prevention of pressure injuries in the positioning and mobilization of patients in the ICU: a good clinical practice document by the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI)

Category A: randomized controlled trials reporting comparative results for specific outcomes between different interventions.

 Level 1: meta-analysis of RCTs

 Level 2: Multiple RCTs of which a quantitative synthesis could not be conducted.

 Level 3: Single RCT.

Category B: observational studies or trials without precise comparison groups, which may allow for an inference with respect to the relationship between interventions and observed outcomes.

 Level 1: non-randomized comparative studies (quasi-experimental, cohort studies, case-control).

 Level 2: non-comparative observational studies with measures of association (relative risk, correlation, sensitivity, and specificity).

 Level 3: non-comparative observational studies with descriptive measures (frequencies, proportions).

 Level 4: case reports and case series.